## Instructional Strategies

**Cooperative Learning Strategies**

- Essential 5 Kagan Structures: Easy to implement and modify, these structures are a great starting place for building a culture of teamwork and collaboration in the math classroom.

- Kagan Cooperative Learning Structures: Workbook from 2-day Kagan workshop detailing over 15 different cooperative learning structures and their rationale. Workbook solutions found here.

- Collaborative Structures for English Language Learners: Brief article discussing rationale behind 5 Kagan Structures that lend themselves particularly well to students learning English as well as math.

- Kagan Structures: extensive list of cooperative learning structures with descriptions

**Questions to Engage Student Discussion**

- Number (or Math) Talks: Number Talks help students make sense of the math they are learning and encourage multiple solution strategies.

- Would You Rather?: Questions requiring students to choose their own path and justify their choice. “Would you rather a pound of quarters or a pound of dimes?” “Would you rather use a 70% discount coupon OR a 40% discount, 20% discount, then 10% discount coupon on your entire purchase?”

- Open Middle: A collection of questions with the attributes that Dan Meyer refers to as “open middle:” a) “closed beginning”–all students start with the same initial problem; b) “closed end”–all students end with the same answer; c) “open middle”–there are multiple ways to approach and ultimately solve the problem

- Estimation 180: A collection of estimation challenges that helps students develop both number sense and problem solving skills.